Chou, Wen-Shing 周文欣Princeton: Princeton University Press
The northern Chinese mountain range of Mount Wutai has been a preeminent site of international pilgrimage for over a millennium. Home to more than one hundred temples, the entire range is considered a Buddhist paradise on earth, and has received visitors ranging from emperors to monastic and lay devotees. Mount Wutai explores how Qing Buddhist rulers and clerics from Inner Asia, including Manchus, Tibetans, and Mongols, reimagined the mountain as their own during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Wen-Shing Chou examines a wealth of original source materials in multiple languages and media--many never before published or translated—such as temple replicas, pilgrimage guides, hagiographic representations, and panoramic maps. She shows how literary, artistic, and architectural depictions of the mountain permanently transformed the site's religious landscape and redefined Inner Asia's relations with China. Chou addresses the pivotal but previously unacknowledged history of artistic and intellectual exchange between the varying religious, linguistic, and cultural traditions of the region. The reimagining of Mount Wutai was a fluid endeavor that proved central to the cosmopolitanism of the Qing Empire, and the mountain range became a unique site of shared diplomacy, trade, and religious devotion between different constituents, as well as a spiritual bridge between China and Tibet.
A compelling exploration of the changing meaning and significance of one of the world's great religious sites, Mount Wutai offers an important new framework for understanding Buddhist sacred geography.
Wen-Shing Chou is assistant professor of art history at Hunter College, City University of New York. She specializes in art of China and the Himalayas. She holds a BA in Art History from the University of Chicago (2001), and an MA and a PhD in History of Art from University of California, Berkeley (2011). Chou’s research focuses on the relationship between religion and empiricism in early modern visuality, and the intersection of history, geography, and biography in Buddhist traditions. She is a native speaker of Chinese, and has a reading knowledge of Sanskrit, Tibetan, Japanese, German, and Italian. Her current project explores the production of multilingual and multimedia objects at the Qing Court.
五世達賴是少數確掌實權的達賴之一。雖然一般說「政教合一」是由他開始，其實當時他頂頭還有蒙古，固始汗才是西藏的幕後統治者。五世達賴執政至65歲才圓寂，時為1682年，康熙21年。當時支持他的固始汗早已逝世，其後人早已想伺機收回政權。五世達賴雄才偉略，在世時仍能勉力於藏滿蒙角力的漩渦中站穩，但如果圓寂消息傳出，形勢便很不妙。他生前苦心培養的攝政第巴桑結（sDe pa Sangs rgyas）恐清廷和蒙古人知道後會乘機找麻煩，秘不發喪，假稱五世閉關，找人假冒他，瞞住內面大部分人和外面所有人，在藏南雖然秘密找到靈童，但沒迎進布達拉宮， 然後攝政用五世名義獨攬政權達十五年之久。
如前所說，藏傳佛教各派歷來都不斷拓展地盤，爭奪資源。藏南的深山一直都是佛法不太盛的地方，人民主要信奉苯教和跟苯教很多共通處的早期藏傳佛教寧瑪派教法，倉央嘉措正是來自一個信奉寧瑪派的家庭。十三、四世紀藏地傳記經常提到高僧們不畏艱苦率領徒眾到這一帶未開化的地方弘法。格魯派得勢後，曾令不少其他宗派的寺院改宗，當然也會向這裡拓展勢力。1680年，門隅地區的寧瑪派(rNying ma pa)達旺寺(rTa dbang)改宗格魯派，之後亦有其他寧瑪派寺院改宗格魯。第六世達賴在此出生，門巴族一帶的喜馬拉雅南麓便順理成章成為格魯派的地盤，大抵跟四世達賴轉生到蒙古族中去的政治目的相近。
Since the winter term 2008/09 a reading course in documentary Manchu has been an additional part of the curriculum at the Chair of Chinese History and Society. As the language of the rulers of the Qing empire Manchu was, besides Chinese, the most important language, especially in governmental communication.
Yet Manchu also served as a vehicle of cultural transmission. Jesuit missionaries, for instance, carried out communication also in Manchu during the pre-negotiations to the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689. The Jesuit Joseph Moyriac de Mailla used a Manchu edition of the history (Yupi) Tongjian gangmu (御批)通鑒綱目 (Han-i araha tung giyan g’ang mu bithe) for his Histoire générale de la Chine. While this is known quite well, Manchu translations of novels, such as the Gin Ping Me bithe (Jinpingmei 金瓶梅) or of scientific books attracted far less attention by scholars.
Since summer 2015 we are working on an English translation of the Manchu version of a language guide for Korean merchants, Qingyu Lao Qida 清語老乞大, which has been edited and translated into modern Chinese by Zhuang Jifa 莊吉發 (Qingyu Lao Qida yizhu 清語老乞大譯注, 2nd ed., Taibei: Wenshizhe chubanshe, 2014, Series Manyu congkan 滿語叢刊). We also refer to the English translation of the Chinese version of this Korean language guide which was carried out by Stephen A. Wadley ("A Translation of the 'Lao Qida' and Investigation into Certain of its Syntactic Structures", Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Washington, 1987). The direct translation from Manchu into English will not only contribute to the philological branch of Manchu studies, but will add to a deeper knowledge of the economic, social and cultural circumstances under which people under the Manchu dynasty lived in and outside of the capital, and how they dealt with each other in daily life.
Tübingen at the International Symposium on Manchu Studies in Göttingen
From 18 to 23 September 2017, Edward Yong LIANG, M.A. (picture above, second from left), and doctoral candidate in Sinology at the Department of Chinese and Korean Studies, University of Tübingen, was invited to teach Manchu studies at the international conference "Manchu in Global History: A Research Language for Qing Historians," organized by the Department of East Asian Studies & Centre for Modern East Asian Studies, University of Göttingen. Over thirty scholars from East Asia, Central Asia, Europe and North America attended his classes.
During his stay in Göttingen, Mr Liang gave lectures about Manchu sources, primers, diplomatic documents and official archives. As a language teacher, Mr Liang also facilitated the participants to learn Sibe-Manchu conversations, in an effort to revive Manchu as an endangered language.
Furthermore, Mr Liang offered valuable advice for improving papers presented at the conference, e.g. with regard to accessing more sources as well as helping in reading and translating Manchu texts. He also shared his personal collection of Manchu sources with the conference organizers and participants, who remarked that scholars feel thus much encouraged to exchange ideas and sources to enhance research quality.
Through this conference, a community of the Manchu scholars is taking shape, and Manchu studies is reaching a new level. Mr Yong Liang's participation has, moreover, demonstrated that Sinology at the University of Tübingen has appeared as one of the leading forces to revive Europe as one of the centers of Manchu studies.
Yong Liang is a PhD candidate in the department of Sinology, studying with Prof. Vogel and Prof. Mittag. His research focuses on economic growth of the imperial Jin-Qing state before 1644. He is currently drafting a book with a view to publication in the Brill series on non-European territorial expansion. He has a particular interest in the Manchu language and has translated the Manchu primers Ki meng (a book for enlightening methods of learning Manchu language), Oyonggo jorin bithe (substantial points of learning Manchu language) and Sirame oyonggo jorin bithe (the sequentially substantial points of learning Manchu language) which will be published by Brill.
（Department of Sinology and Korean Studies at the University of Tübingen）
漢譯本《典禮》將乾隆十二年滿文本書成〈上諭〉中「meni gioroi hala wecerengge oci.（若是我們的覺羅姓跳神者）」一句，譯作「若我愛新覺羅姓之祭神」，對此學者早有討論，認為舉此造成專記皇室薩滿祭祀的誤解，甚至衍生出將愛新覺羅家族的祭儀作為滿洲諸姓氏共同規範的看法，以致忽略此書係總結整個覺羅氏薩滿信仰的意義。惟兩種文本都經乾隆皇帝親自核定，對於滿、漢文文義的出入，不致無所知悉，而結果如此，或有彰顯其權威性的用意。從《典禮》的內容來看，各項儀注的規範，都是根據宮中現行「條例」；考訂祝辭的依據，率出自內廷新、舊薩滿或五旗王公之家；協助典禮的人員，如司胙官（amsun i janggin）、司香長（hiyan i da）、司香婦人（hiyan i hehesi）、太監等，均隸屬於宮廷；祭祀舉行的場所，無論是堂子、坤寧宮或祭馬神室，皆為大內空間；祭器型制的講究，更非常人所能負擔，自然可以理解為皇室專有，尤其是堂子祭典。